According to Article 115, Section 22 of the Criminal Code, trafficking in human beings is: recruitment, transport, delivery, transfer, storage or reception of a person using:

  1. Violence or unlawful threats
  2. Abduction
  3. Deception
  4. Misleading or taking advantage of an error or inability to properly understand the action taken
  5. Abuse of a relationship of dependency, exploitation of a critical position or a state of helplessness
  6. To give or accept a pecuniary or personal benefit, or a promise thereof, to a person who cares for or supervises another person for the purpose of exploiting him/her, even with the latter’s consent, in particular in prostitution, pornography or other forms of sexual exploitation, in forced labour or services, in begging, in slavery or other forms of exploitation degrading human dignity, or for the purpose of obtaining cells; tissues or organs contrary to the provisions of the Act. If the perpetrator’s conduct involves a minor, it constitutes trafficking in human beings, even if the methods or means listed in points 1 to 6 have not been used.

Trafficking in human beings is understood as:


  1. Recruitment
  2. Transport
  3. Providing
  4. Passing
  5. Store


  1. Violence,
  2. Unlawful threat
  3. Abduction
  4. Deception, misrepresentation
  5. Abuse of the dependency relationship
  6. Taking advantage of powerlessness
  7. Granting a financial benefit to a caregiver

With the intention of using these individuals to:

  1. Prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation
  2. Forced Labor
  3. Services Beg
  4. Acquisition of cells, tissues, organs


Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation – most commonly forced prostitution): Some traffickers are often aware in advance that they will be working in the sex business. Most of them, however, are not informed about the actual conditions of this work. Many of them end up in the sex business against their will – deceived or deceitfully lured. The most common forms of coercion used by perpetrators against people (usually women) forced to work in the sex industry are: physical and psychological violence, rape, debt bondage, deprivation of liberty, isolation and constant surveillance, confiscation of documents, blackmail. The fact that someone agrees to work in prostitution should not be taken into account when helping and supporting that person, as the consent may have been given under duress.

Trafficking in human beings for forced labour/slave practices/labour camps – most often concern sectors of the economy such as agriculture, construction or factories and are associated with the following activities: continuous overworking hours, poor living conditions, low or no pay, non-compliance with labour law, lack of social protection, lack of contract and insurance, restriction or deprivation of liberty, deprivation of documents. Both women and men are victims of forced labour.

Domestic slavery – involves keeping people, especially women, in their homes and using them for housework and caring for the elderly or sick. The same forms of coercion are used as in the two points above. Forced begging: women and children, as well as the elderly and handicapped, are usually forced to do so. They beg in big cities they don’t know, they are poorly fed, they are under surveillance all the time and the money they beg is taken away from them.

Human trafficking for organ harvesting: Young people or children may be trafficked or abducted to harvest organs for transplantation. Sometimes, desperate poor people offer a kidney for sale, for example, and thus run the risk of becoming victims of human trafficking. Coercion to commit crimes: Some people are forced to commit crimes, such as stealing or smuggling drugs. Usually, these are people in a difficult life situation, children and people with previous criminal records. Most often, they are blackmailed and subjected to violence.